The answer was Team Cyborg, a team of surgeons, scientists and engineers
assembled at MIT to rebuild Jim back to his former climbing prowess.
Team member Dr. Matthew Carty amputated Jim's badly damaged leg at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston,
using the AMI surgical procedure.
Tendon pulleys were created and attached to Jim's tibia bone to reconnect the opposing muscles.
The AMI procedure reestablished the neural link between Jim's ankle-foot muscles and his brain.
When Jim moves his phantom limb, the reconnected muscles move in dynamic pairs,
causing signals of proprioception to pass through nerves to the brain,
so Jim experiences normal sensations with ankle-foot positions and movements, even when blindfolded.
Here's Jim at the MIT laboratory after his surgeries.
We electrically linked Jim's AMI muscles, via the electrodes, to a bionic limb,
and Jim quickly learned how to move the bionic limb in four distinct ankle-foot movement directions.
We were excited by these results, but then Jim stood up, and what occurred was truly remarkable.
All the natural biomechanics mediated by the central nervous system emerged via the synthetic limb as an involuntary, reflexive action.
All the intricacies of foot placement during stair ascent -- emerged before our eyes.
Here's Jim descending steps, reaching with his bionic toe to the next stair tread,
automatically exhibiting natural motions without him even trying to move his limb.
Because Jim's central nervous system is receiving the proprioceptive signals,
it knows exactly how to control the synthetic limb in a natural way.